志萍的三分田

以中文为锄 以英文为铲

12月 8th, 2020

【原创】志萍版老友记英语笔记之构词法:7.混成法、8.截短法、9.逆生法

老友记笔记, by 李志萍.

一. 混成法(blending)(9个)


英语构词中,可以将两个词各取一部分混合而成一个新词,新词的意义是它组成成分意义的融合或叠
加,这样的构词法就是混成法。

 

1. sitcom

 

116.[Scene: Monica and Rachel's. Ross, Chandler and the girls are dividing some Chinese takeout 
while the
sitcom 'Family Matters' is playing on the TV.]
sitcom [ˈsɪtkɑm]: a regular program on television that shows the same characters in different amusing situations
情景喜剧
(situation情况+ comedy喜剧)

 

2. modem

 

208.Chandler: All right, check out this bad boy: 12-megabyte of RAM, 500-megabyte hard drive, built-in
spreadsheet capabilities and a
modem that transmits at over 28,000 bps.
modem [ˈmoʊdəm]: a device that connects one computer system to another using a telephone line so that data can
be sent 调制解调器
(modulator调制器+ demodulator解调器)

 

3. infomercial

 

215.[Scene: Chandler and Joey's. They are watching an infomercial.]
infomercial [ˈɪnfoʊˌmərʃl]: a long advertisement on television that tries to give a lot of information about a subject,
so that it does not appear to be an advertisement 电视导购节目
(information消息+commercial商业广告)

 

4. brunch

 

216.Joey: Well, you know the guy that's on my show that's in a coma? He's having a brunch.
brunch [brʌntʃ]: a meal that you eat in the late morning as a combination of breakfast and lunch 早午(breakfast早
餐+lunch午餐)

 

5. mustard-tastrophe

 

318.Phoebe: Yeah, I know. It's a real mustard-tastrophe. Can you help me?
mustard-tastrophe: 芥末酱灾难 (mustard芥末酱+catastrophe灾难)

 

6. telethon

 

504.Joey: Well, they're doing this uh, telethon thing on TV and my agent got me a job as co-host!
telethon [ˈtɛləˌθɑn]: a very long television show, broadcast to raise money for charity 冗长的电视募捐节目
(television电视节目和marathon马拉松)

 

7. frenaissance

 

601.Phoebe: Are you asking me to have a frenaissance?
frenaissance: 友谊复兴(friendship友谊+renaissance复兴)

 

8. mochaccino

 

816.Chandler: Yeah. I'll have a mochaccino. [to Phoebe.] What are you doing?
mochaccino: 摩卡(mocha摩卡和+cappuccino卡布诺)

 

9. camcorder

 

1004.Ross: [pointing the camcorder at himself] There's something you didn't know about your Dad!
camcorder [ˈkæmˌkɔrdər]: a video camera that records pictures and sound and that can be carried around 摄
(camera摄像机+recorder录像机)

 

二. 截短法(clipping)(5个)

 

截短法是将原词的一部分截去,只用剩下来的一部分构成新词

 

1. burger

 

124.Monica: Okay, how does everybody like their burgers?
burger [ˈbərɡər]: a flat round mass of ground meat or minced vegetables that is fried and often eaten in a bread
roll 汉堡
(hamburger的截短词)

 

2. limo

 

213.Ross: Bye, Marcel. See you on the big screen. You keep people drinking that beer, okay? I'll 
miss you
, buddy. [Marcel is driven off in a limo.] Bye.
limo [ˈlɪmoʊ]: a large, expensive, comfortable car 豪华轿车(limousine的截短词)

 

3. varsity

 

405.Josh: Oh, I still do. Next year, I hope to make varsity though.
varsity ['vɑrsəti]: the main team that represents a college or high school, especially in sports competitions (尤指
体育运动的)大学代表队,校队
(university的截短词拼法略做调整)

 

4. fridge

 

413.Monica: If you have the big apartment, then you have to deal with people coming over all the time.
That
fridge has got to be stocked, okay? 
fridge [frɪdʒ]: a piece of electrical equipment in which food is kept cold so that it stays fresh 冰箱(refrigerator的截
短词,
拼法略做调整)

 

5. lab

 

711.David: Please clean my beakers. I don't get out of the lab much.
lab [læb]: a building or a room where scientific experiments, analyses, and research are carried out 实验室
(laboratory的截短词)


三. 逆生法(back formation)(2个)

 

逆生法因与派生法的构词方式恰好相反而得名:派生法通过添加词缀构成新词,而逆生法则通过除去
一个词的词缀成分构成更短的新词。逆生词多用于口语或非正式场合,可以为语言增添幽默、新奇和
诙谐的色彩。

 

1. cubicle-cube

 

115.Phoebe: Wow! It's huge! It's so much bigger than the cubicle. Oh, this is a cube.
cubicle [ˈkyubɪkl]: an area in an office that is separated from the rest of the room by thin walls (办公室内的)格子间
cube (<词缀>后缀-icle置于名词后,表示"小"。如:part 部分;particle 微量)

 

2. implicit-plicit

 

1016.Monica: Well, maybe she thought that with all of your history it could be, you know, implicit.
Ross: Well, it needs to be plicit.
implicit [ɪmˈplɪsət]: suggested without being directly expressed 不言明的;含蓄的;间接的
plicit (<词缀>im-用于"m","p"或"b"前构成反义词,表示"不,无,非"。如:polite 有礼貌的; impolite 不礼貌的)

 

购买《志萍版老友记英语笔记》,学习完整的英语十大构词法,请加微信zhipingjie

 

【原创】志萍版老友记英语笔记之构词法:1.派生法、2.合成法、3.转化法(2020.11.22)

【原创】志萍版老友记英语笔记之构词法:4.英语中的外来词(108个)(2020.12.3)

【原创】志萍版老友记英语笔记之构词法:5.英语中的拟声法(46个)(2020.12.4)

【原创】志萍版老友记英语笔记之构词法:6.首字母缩略词(34个)(2020.12.7)

相关日志

Back Top

回复自“【原创】志萍版老友记英语笔记之构词法:7.混成法、8.截短法、9.逆生法”

评论 (0) 引用 (0) 发表评论 引用地址
    1. 没有任何引用。

    给我留言

    欢迎 再次光临 [ 更改 ]


    有人回复时邮件通知我 / 快捷键:Ctrl+Enter

    Posts Protect Plugin by http://blog.muffs.ru