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11月 22nd, 2020

【原创】志萍版老友记英语笔记之构词法:1.派生法、2.合成法、3.转化法

老友记笔记, by 李志萍.

 

对于英语学习者来说,尽可能多的掌握单词是学好英语的关键,很多同学对英语学习感到吃力的主要根结在于
词汇不足。今天我们来学习一种记忆单词的方法:构词法
(word formation),它可以使我们轻松认识更多单词,
以一种巧妙的方式扩大词汇量。

 

构词法主要有三种方法:派生法、合成法和转化法。

 

. 派生法

 

在词根前面加前缀(prefix)或在词根后面加后缀(suffix),从而构成一个与原单词意义相近或截然相反的新词
的方法叫作派生法
(derivation)
,又叫缀合。除少数英语前缀外,前缀一般改变单词的意义,不改变词性;
后缀决定单词的词性。

 

1. <词缀>前缀ex-附在名词,表示"以前的前任的"例如:ex-boyfriend 前男友

 

102.Marsha: Speaking of issues, isn't that your ex-wife?

ex-wife: 前妻

 

716.Ross: Rach, he's not an ex-con.
ex-con: 以前的罪犯;有前科者 

 

20. (1) <词缀>后缀-y加在名词后,构成形容词,表示"构成的",例如:waxy 蜡质的

 

101.Ross: [squatting and reading the instructions] I'm supposed to attach a brackety thing to the
side things, using a bunch of these little worm guys. I have no brackety thing
. I see no worm guys
whatsoever
. And I cannot feel my legs.

brackety: 支架制的

 

(2) <词缀>后缀-y加在名词后,构成形容词,表示"充满的,以为特征的"例如:dusty 布满灰尘的。

 

124.Phoebe: No. I mean, I mean, when you're at the fifteenth date, you know, you're already in a very
relationshippy place. You know, it's…You're committed.

relationshippy: 深陷关系的

 

208.Phoebe: It's not, it's not very Thanksgiving-y.

Thanksgiving-y: 以感恩节为特征的

 

(3) <>后缀-y加在名词后,用于构成昵称、诨名等,往往带有强烈的感情,表示"小的、可爱的"例如:kitty 猫咪。

 

107.Phoebe: Oh, poor little Tooty is scared to death. We should find his owner.
Tooty: 嘟嘟

 

116.Ross: Marcel, Marcel, give Rossy the remote.

Rossy: 小罗斯

 

27. <词缀>后缀-wise加在名词后,构成副词,表示"在某方面",例如:career-wise 从职业的角度来看。

 

108.Phoebe: God, what a great day! [They all stare at her.] What? Weather-wise!

weather-wise: 就天气来说

 

116.Joey: Oh, no-no-no. It's-it's for Ursula. I just figured, you know, size-wise.

size-wise: 从尺寸方面

 

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. 合成法

 

把两个或两个以上的单词连在一起合成一个新词这样的方法就是合成法(compounding)用这种方法构成
的新词叫做复合词
(compound)复合词之间有的直接连接在一起有的要用连字符-接,由习惯决定
这些新生词的词义可以根据它所包含的单词的词义推断出来,一般看其词,知其意。

 

1. <复合>-shaped附在名词后,构成复合形容,表示"…形状的"例如:heart-shaped 心形的

 

101.Chandler: I would have to say that is a L-shaped bracket.

L-shaped: L形的 

 

102.Rachel: Okay. Okay. It's-it's a little pear-shaped diamond-

pear-shaped: 梨形的

 

515.Chandler: Well, I would've been happy because I would've been able to spend the rest of my life
with the woman that I love. Or you would've seen a
Chandler-shaped hole in that door. [points at the
door
]

Chandler-shaped: Chandler形的

 

524.Joey: Okay. Well, if that's how you feel about it, fine! None of you are gonna get to live with me in
my great big
hand-shaped mansion! Except, uh, you, Pheebs. You can live in the thumb.

hand-shaped: 形的 

 

7. <复合>well-附在过去分词,构成复合形容词,表示"很好的,充分的",例如:well-paid 高薪

 

114.Fireman Charlie: Look, ladies, in the future when you're burning your ex-boyfriend's stuff, number
one:
 Make sure you are in a well-ventilated area. Number two: If you are gonna be burning his clothing,
you're go
nna wanna stay away from your synthetic fabrics.
well-ventilated: 通风良好的 

 

40. <复合>-related名词构成形容词,表示"相关的",例如:stress-related 与压力相关的。

 

1001.Rachel: Well, I tried, but then he had a shampoo-related emergency. So I guess now it's your turn
again.

shampoo-related: 洗发水相关的

 

1006.Ross: Oh, hi! Hello! Uh, have you come to ask me some more paleontology-related questions?
U
h, your grandmother's nickname, perhaps? Ann-Margret's pants size?

paleontology-related: 古生物学相关的

 

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. 转化法

 

英语构词法中,把一种词性用作另一种词性而词形不变的方法叫作转化法(conversion)

 

108.Shelly: Hey, gorgeous! How's it going?

gorgeous: 帅哥 (<转化>形容词转化为名词)

 

115.Chandler: Yeah, I just don't have a lot of cheffing experience. Unless it's an all-toast restaurant.
cheffing: 当厨师的 (<转化>chef名词转化为动词并使用其现在分词形式)

 

116.Chandler: Hey, listen, I know I came in late last week, but I slept funny and my hair was very very 
strange.

funny: 奇怪地 (<转化>形容词转化为副词,表示in a strange way)

 

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